South-South Cooperation refers to the exchange of resources, know-how, and technology between countries in the Global South. While this transfer is still limited compared to North-South exchanges, it holds much potential for the development of shared economic, political, and security objectives. The following articles include examples of an international railway project, a cooperation between Andean nations to restore cities' historic centers, and a Tanzania-Indonesia agriculture initiative. Read on to learn about South-South cooperation in Lagos, Nairobi, Mumbai, Jakarta, Rio de Janeiro, and Bogotá, and then join the discussion below.
Rail construction to deepen relations between West African cities
Olatawura Ladipo-Ajayi, Lagos Community Manager
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) represents one of the many successful south-south relationships in Africa, connecting 15 West African states to promote mobility, trade, and ultimately faster growth of the member nations. These states include Nigeria and Ivory Coast, who have taken their relationships one step further to establish stronger trade ties.
Both countries' governments are currently in talks about partnering on a rail infrastructure project to connect Lagos and Abidjan, as well as other African countries (Benin, Togo, and Ghana) in between. There are indications that Nigeria and Ivory Coast will work together to execute a number of transportation infrastructure projects to speed up economic development in both countries.
Already, the two nations have agreed to collaborate on fighting against coastline piracy, and have initiated the discussion on the construction of the rail line to connect Abidjan and Lagos. The project is expected to boost trade relations between the two countries and in the West African region in general. Cooperation between the two countries in trade relations alone is expected to rise to $2.7 billion; Lagos, with its large ports of entry, makes a very suitable rail stop in the West African trade rail route. However, the existence of a rail route raises a few questions. Firstly, would it help reduce traffic caused by the large population and poorly managed roadways? Will the rail link terminate at the port of entry, or extend into inner parts of Lagos city to help lessen the already congested roadways? And ultimately, will this inspire the city to work faster in providing alternative transport routes besides roadways for the increasing population of Lagos (which will increase due to the influx of merchants into the city through the trade rail lines)? If the answers to these questions are positive and are carefully considered, the rail line project will not only open the city of Lagos, as well as Nigeria, to other West African states through the more affordable and safer rail routes, but also lead to solutions for the traffic-laden Lagos city. This is especially true in light of other rail road revitalization projects currently taking place in Nigeria, such as the rail linking Lagos State to Kano State.
The construction of the rail line linking Lagos to other African states is expected to encourage trade, boost the transportation sector, and allow for the consideration of other forms of transportation within the city, such as using waterways and railways. The binational cooperation is a positive step for both nations and the concerned cities; the partnership is expected to advance goals of meaningful and sustainable economic, social, and political relations.
Photo credit: Nairaland
SDI in Kenya: forging global solutions that put the grassroots first
Katy Fentress, Nairobi Community Manager
The Kenyan federation of slum dwellers, Muungano wa Wanavijiji has succeeded in firmly establishing itself as an force to be reckoned with in the national arena. As their domestic influence grows, they have also begun to focus on strengthening ties with similar groups in the region and beyond.
Muungano has been active in community-led slum upgrading since its inception in 1996. From its origins as a small association of Nairobi grassroots groups fighting to avoid eviction, in less than a decade the federation has spread out to other cities across the country and forged a partnership with Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI), the international network of slum dwellers that strives to improve the conditions of people living in informal settlements. Since the beginning of the year, SDI and Muungano have made great steps towards expanding their network.
Significantly, this April at the UN-HABITAT headquarters in Nairobi, SDI was warmly welcomed to the World Urban Campaign by Dr. Joan Clos, the Executive Director of UN-HABITAT. Although Muungano did not have a direct role in the partnership between UN-HABITAT and SDI, the organization stands to benefit immensely from the collaboration and has since been forging partnerships and collaborations of its own.
The objective of creating a strong interconnected regional and global network of slum dwellers' organizations is to ensure that best practices continue to be shared in such a way that marginalized urban communities can take inspiration from the work of SDI and its partners and, at the same time, share their own experiences of what works and what doesn't.
Thus, for example, in June of this year a delegation from Muungano traveled to Uganda to attend the 9th SDI East African Hub meeting. Hosted by the Ugandan federation of slum dwellers, the meeting aimed to bring together politicians, NGOs, and city planners in order to discuss and develop an integrated national slum upgrading strategy. The Hub, which is a quarterly event hosted on rotation between its three main member countries, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania (KUT), aims to forge linkages and to share technical and financial expertise while mobilizing governing institutions from the top down to the grassroots.
Around the time that the Muungano delegation was visiting Uganda, another delegation struck out for Burkina Faso in order to expand on the Know Your City project spearheaded by the Cities Alliance network. Two teams, one from Kenya and another from Ghana, traveled to the capital Ouagadougou in order to lead a series of workshops on enumeration, data collection, basic mapping and sensitization of municipal government representatives. Although the initiative encountered some logistical hitches, due in part to a language barrier between the different delegations (Burkina Faso being a Francophone country), the exchange was seen as an overall success and laid the foundation for future projects of this kind.
The acceptance of SDI into the folds of UN-HABITAT signals that the emphasis on grassroots, community-led participation in the field of slum upgrading is finally moving from rhetoric to practice. For over a decade academics have argued for increased bottom-up participation, but the reality is that this is not something that could be handed over from the top down. By positioning themselves as the strongest global actors in the fight for the recognition of the rights of slum dwellers, SDI has made its way onto the global agenda and ensured that its voice is one that deserves to be heard.
Only through forging both horizontal and vertical partnerships can we hope to devise global strategies that think locally and put people first.
Looking east for urban models
Carlin Carr, Mumbai Community Manager
Researchers and urbanists from leading Western institutions have proposed interventions — both large and small — for "righting" India's megacities. In Mumbai, however, city planners have looked east for models, with the notion that cities with similar issues can provide more appropriate solutions. The idea of "Shanghai-ing" Mumbai has been one of the most talked-about examples, but more effort is being made all over the country to exchange across more local borders.
"South-South learning and cooperation is about developing countries working together to find solutions to common development challenges," says a report by PRIA, a Delhi-based research institute. "South-South cooperation is increasingly being used as a popular means to accelerate learning among the Southern countries as it provides practical and feasible solutions to some of the most impinging questions that the developing countries are facing today." The report offers South-South sharing as a more equitable alternative to North-South knowledge transfer, which is based on a system of control and dominance.
PRIA has initiated the process of South-South sharing through a program called "Deepening Local Democratic Governance through Social Accountability in Asia." PRIA's governance example originates in India, where a group of slum dwellers in Chhattisgarh lobbied their local government for a new water tank, which was implemented swiftly, within a week of the proposal. Women of the community demanded the improved water supply services. Grassroots efforts like these provide solid examples of successful outcomes driven by various stakeholders, including the community, civil society, and local authorities. Most importantly, PRIA monitored the process to ensure that it was more participatory and that all stakeholders collaborated equally. PRIA recognizes this as a good example, but not the only one: "Myriads of innovative endeavors have been undertaken in a collaborative manner by concerned stakeholders across different regions of the world, which offer a lot in terms of mutual learning and sharing."
To this end, PRIA invited city leaders from Bangladesh and Cambodia to learn from Indian examples and share ideas from their own cities. The initiative is funded by the United Nations Democracy Fund in collaboration with PRIP Trust in Bangladesh and SILAKA in Cambodia. The project's goals are to improve democratic practices through social accountability for the provision of basic services to poor families in Rajshahi, Bangladesh and Takhmao, Cambodia.
Increasingly, Indian cities are listening to examples from the Global South for solutions that tackle similar issues. Bogotá, for example, has provided developing cities across the world with a model transport system in its BRTS. Ahmedabad has instituted its own BRTS, following Bogota's lead. As better examples for city building evolve in the developing world, cities in India will have the opportunity not only to learn from their neighbors but to stand as models as well.
Kerjasama Selatan-Selatan sebagai wadah pembelajaran bersama
Widya Anggraini, Jakarta Community Manager
Indonesia's involvement in South-South Cooperation dates back to the 1955 Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung. Since then, Indonesia has developed a number of technical initiatives, including significant bilateral cooperation with Tanzania starting in the 1990s, with support from Japan. This cooperation has included an exchange program, jobs training, capacity building, the establishment of an agriculture learning center, and regular meetings of the Joint Agriculture Coordination Committee. In the future, this type of South-South Cooperation framework will be replicated and improved upon by the Indonesian government, with support from international donors, and can provide the basis for cooperative technical and knowledge-sharing initiatives targeting urban poverty.
Sejarah Indonesia terlibat dalam Kerjasama Selatan-Selatan (KSS) atau dikenal dengan South-South Cooperation (SSC) dimulai sejak pelaksanaan Konferensi Asia Afrika di Bandung pada tahun 1955. Konferensi ini memiliki peran penting dalam mendorong kerjasama yang saling menguntungkan antar negara-negara berkembang. Pertemuan ini merupakan cikal bakal terbentuknya Gerakan Non-Blok pada tahun 1961 dan Kelompok 77 tahun 1964. Salah satu hasil dari kerjasama mereka adalah pembentukan Pusat gerakan Non Blok untuk Kerjasama Teknis Selatan-Selatan (Non-Aligned Movement Centre for South-South Technical Cooperation - NAM-CSSTC) dalam rangka mempercepat pembangunan di negara-negara berkembang atas inisiatif Indonesia dan Brunei Darussalam. Sejak tahun 1981 Pemerintah Indonesia mulai aktif mengadakan kerjasama teknis dengan membentuk Indonesian technical Cooperation Program (ITCP) yang bertujuan untuk berbagi pengalaman dan pengetahuan Indonesia tentang pembangunan yang dianggap sukses di Indonesia melalui program pelatihan dan pertukaran ahli di Indonesia dengan dukungan dari negara lain dan donor internasional.
ITCP secara berlanjut menawarkan bantuan teknis yang terangkum dalam TCDC (Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries) Program. Salah satu bentuk Kerjasama Selatan-selatan di Indonesia adalah kerjasama bidang pertanian dengan Tanzania yang berlandaskan pada kenyataan bahwa pertanian merupakan salah satu kesamaan utama antara Negara-negara Asia dan Afrika dan bahwa sebagian besar penduduknya bermata pencaharian di bidang pertanian. Selama kurun waktu 1990-2009 Indonesia telah membantu Tanzania dengan berbagai kegiatan diantaranya adalah program magang bagi petani Tanzania, program pelatihan bagi pejabat pertanian Tanzania, pengiriman tenaga ahli pertanian Indonesia ke Tanzania dan mendirikan Pusat Pelatihan Pertanian Pedesaan atau Farmers Agriculture and Rural Training Center (FARTC). FARTC dibangun pada tahun 1998 di desa Mkido-Morogoro, Tanzania, disertai dengan pemberian kendaraan dan motor serta sarana diklat dan bantuan pompa air yang merupakan sumbangan masyarakat petani Indonesia sebagai upaya meningkatkan produksi pangan di Tanzania melalui pertanian. Program ini secara nyata telah berhasil meningkatkan hasil gabah Tanzania dari 3.8 ton/ha menjadi 6 ton/ha. Sementara itu, dari segi pembiayaan, kerjasama bidang pertanian ini dilaksanakan dengan konsep Tripartite Financing Management dan Triangle Co-operation yang melibatkan Pemerintah Jepang (JICA).
Selanjutnya, dalam rangka mempererat hubungan bilateral Indonesia-Tanzania juga dibentuk Joint Agriculture Coordination Committee (JACC). Pertemuan pertama JACC di laksanakan di Bogor pada tahun 2010 sedangkan pertemuan kedua dilaksanakan di Dar es Salaam, Tanzania pada tahun 2012. Dalam kedua pertemuan tersebut telah disepakati untuk melakukan tiga kegiatan utama yaitu:
Peningkatan Kapasitas (Capacity Building): Dalam kerangka capacity building, maka dua Negara ini akan bertukar pelatihan. Indonesia akan memberikan peningkatan keterampilan di bidang teknologi agro-bisnis hortikultura. Selanjutnya beasiswa S2 dan S3 dari Kemendikbud juga akan diberikan untuk warga Negara Tanzania. Sementara itu Tanzania akan memberikan pelatihan di bidang kesehatan hewan.
Penelitian dan Pengembangan (Research and Development): Indonesia dan Tanzania akan mengadakan penelitian bersama mengenai kapas dimana pada saat ini dari pihak Tanzania sendiri mengalami permasalahan terkait pembibitan kapas. Selain persoalan kapas, riset bersama juga akan mencakup permasalah petani terkait system produksi bibit dan teknologi pasca panen serta masalah peternakan dan perikanan.
Akses Pasar (Market Access): Dalam rangka meningkatkan perdagangan, terutama di bidang pertanian, maka kedua Negara sepakat untuk membentuk Billateral trade Committee serta membangun promotion house di Dar es Salaam sebagai wadah pengenalan teknologi pertanian terbaru.
Bentuk kerjasama selatan-selatan saat ini yang dominan dilaksanakan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia adalah pada pemberian pelatihan teknis, namun dimasa yang akan datang akan dilakukan berbagai inovasi kerjasama seperti pembentukan pusat studi atau pusat ekonomi bagi kedua Negara untuk memajukan kesejahteraan bersama.
Foto: SSC Indonesia
Exportando o conhecimento em politicas sociais e promovendo maior cooperação entre países
Catalina Gomez, Coordenadora da Rede em Rio de Janeiro
Recentemente Brasil tem-se tornado uma referência internacional em politicas e programas sociais devido a seus resultados importantes na redução da pobreza e na geração de oportunidades para as populações mais vulneráveis. Programas como Bolsa Família, o esquema de transferências de renda que beneficia a mais de 13 milhões de famílias, além do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos, que tem contribuído na redução da insegurança alimentar por meio de iniciativas de agricultura familiar, são alguns dos principais programas de interesse para outros países.
Para atender a necessidade de cooperação técnica entre países e promover a experiência brasileira em temas de politicas e programas sociais, o Ministério de Desenvolvimento Social, a instituição do governo federal que lidera as iniciativas de erradicação da miséria no país, organiza reuniões periódicas e troca de experiências com vários representantes de distintos governos. Especificamente para Bolsa Família, o MDS providencia informação detalhada sobre a legislação do programa e sobre temas chave como o registro único de programas sociais e esquemas de implantação local que envolve a participação ativa dos municípios. Com referencia ao Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos, o MDS compartilha vários modelos de promoção da agricultura familiar em áreas remotas.
Atualmente, uma grande parte das solicitudes de assistência técnica vem dos países Africanos, e tanto o Bolsa Família como o Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos, são os dois programas que mais chamam a atenção das contrapartes deste continente. A Ministra de Desenvolvimento Social, Tereza Campello, tem mencionado recentemente em Addis Abba durante o seminário "Novas abordagens unificadas para erradicar a fome na África até 2025" que "a cooperação Sul-Sul e os países da África têm prioridade para o Brasil". Por este motivo o MDS esta juntando esforços com o Instituto Lula (liderado pelo próprio Ex-presidente Lula) para facilitar a troca de alto nível e assistência técnica para países africanos. Por exemplo, já está em curso o "Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos África" que esta sendo testado em Níger, Malavi, Moçambique, Senegal e Etiópia com apoio técnico do governo brasileiro e o financiamento do Programa Mundial de Alimentos.
Com referência à assistência técnica no desenho de esquemas de transferência, muitos países tem expressado conhecer o contexto local de implantação além das condições no nível nacional. Por esta ração cidades como Rio de Janeiro são amplamente visitadas para conhecer seus próprios esquemas de erradicação da pobreza. Rio também é de interesse para muitos países e cidades pelos outros programas complementários bem sucedidos de urbanização, moradia e transporte público que beneficiam a população de baixa renda.
Brasil tem passado de ser um país que apenas recebia ajuda internacional a ser um “exportador” de conhecimento de politicais sociais. Ele tem se tornado num país influente não só na Cooperação Sul-Sul, mais também na "Cooperação Sul-Norte", com varias comissões de Suécia e os Estados Unidos interessados na sua assistência. Neste sentido, faz uns anos atrás México e Brasil foram chamados pelo prefeito Michael Bloomberg na assessoria no desenho e implantação de um esquema de transferência para a população carente de Nueva York. Com este tipo de colaboração, estão mudando as dinâmicas de cooperação entre países e cidades?
Crédito fotográfico: Instituto Lula
Exporting social policy know-how and promoting greater cooperation among countries
Catalina Gomez, Rio de Janeiro Community Manager
In recent years, Brazil has become an international point of reference with respect to social policies and programs, given its significant improvements in poverty alleviation and in generating greater opportunities for low-income populations. Programs like Bolsa Familia, the conditional cash transfer that currently benefits 13 million families, and the Food Acquisition Program, which has contributed to reducing food insecurity through the promotion of family agriculture initiatives, are key interventions that many countries are interested in learning from, with the intention of implementing them in their own contexts.
In order to support technical cooperation among countries and to promote Brazil's experience in social protection policies and programs, the Ministry of Social Development, the country's leading agency in poverty eradication efforts, arranges a series of meetings and field visits for various policy-makers from all around the world. The MDS provides in-depth information regarding Bolsa Familia's legislation and key features, such as the unified registry system of social programs and the innovative implementation scheme that relies heavily on municipalities. For the Food Acquisition Program, the MDS shares various models for promoting family agriculture schemes in remote areas.
Currently, most of the demand for technical assistance comes from African countries, and both the Bolsa Familia and the Food Acquisition Program are of particular interest to policy makers in this region. Tereza Campello, Brazil's Minister of Social Development, recently mentioned in Addis Abba during the "Unified Approach to End Hunger in Africa by 2025" seminar that "South-South cooperation and African countries have priority for Brazil's technical support." For this reason, the MDS is partnering with the Instituto Lula (led by former President Lula) in supporting high-level policy exchanges and technical assistance with African countries. For example, there is already a "Food Acquisition Program Africa" that is being piloted in Niger, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, and Ethiopia, all with the technical support of the Brazilian government and financing from the World Food Program.
For technical assistance in the design and implementation of cash transfers, many countries have expressed interest not only in understanding the national conditions of these schemes, but also in their implementation characteristics and challenges at the local level (municipalities/cities). That is why Rio de Janeiro periodically welcomes delegations interested in implementing poverty eradication programs. They are particularly interested in Rio because of its innovative approaches to implementing such schemes in a context of violence, and also because of Rio's complimentary interventions focused on improving infrastructure, housing, and transportation in low-income areas.
Brazil was once a recipient of financial aid and of technical support, but is now an important "exporter" of social policy expertise. The country has become so influential in the social policy debate that it is not only advising in "South-South" contexts, but also in "South-North" discussions, as delegations from Sweden and the US have demonstrated interest in Brazil's social policies. Additionally, both Mexico and Brazil were called by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to advise on the design and the implementation of a cash transfer program for low-income populations. With collaborations of this type, we may be reaching a pivotal moment in the dynamics of technical cooperation among nations and cities.
Photo credit: Instituto Lula
Cooperación andina en la recuperación de centros históricos
Jorge Bela, Gestor Comunitario de Bogotá
Bogotá tiene un centro histórico espectacular. Las estrechas callejuelas de la época colonial están jalonadas de edificios de gran belleza y en muchos casos sorprendentemente bien conservados, al menos estructuralmente. El ascenso empinado de las vías hacia los Cerros Orientales, que se elevan abruptamente 600 metros sobre el nivel del centro de la ciudad, crean una perspectiva única en una ciudad que a veces se olvida de su ubicación geográfica en plena cordillera andina. Sin embargo, a lo largo de las últimas décadas se ha producido un deterioro progresivo de la zona. Los principales edificios considerados como bienes de interés cultural, tanto de la época colonial como republicana, están generalmente en muy buen estado de conservación, pero el centro histórico sufre de problemas como la inseguridad, falta de desarrollo económico, una fuerte desigualdad social, falta de espacios verdes, o el deterioro de las vivienda de personas con bajos ingresos.
Para buscar soluciones a estos problemas, el Instituto Distrital de Patrimonio Cultural (IDPC), perteneciente a la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, está en la fase final de la elaboración de un documento que han denominado Plan de Revitalización del Centro Tradicional (PRVCT), que incluye todo el ámbito territorial de la ciudad consolidada en 1920, un total de 471 hectáreas. A lo largo de un año, han estado recabando la opinión de expertos y de miembros de la comunidad. Bogotá no está sola en este proceso. Muchas otras ciudades latinoamericanas se han enfrentado a problemas similares respecto a sus centros históricos, y esto ha permitido al IDPC buscar modelos exitosos en países cercanos. Para ello se involucró a expertos de Lima, Guatemala, y Bahía de los Santos (Brasil). Y este no es un camino de una sola dirección: el IDPC participará en diciembre en las 4ª Jornada de Paisaje Cultural en Lima por el Ministerio de Cultura peruano. El IDPC está, además, buscando el apoyo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, que ha apoyado iniciativas similares en Quito y Perú.
Para Miguel Hincapié, subdirector general del IPDC, son muchas las razones que explican la colaboración entre ciudades de la región. Por ejemplo, en Quito, cuyo proyecto de revitalización del centro se considera altamente exitoso, se consiguieron obtener excelentes resultados sin desplazar a una parte mayoritaria de su población. En efecto, cuando se empiezan a captar recursos para mejora del centro, se produce una inevitable gentrificación. Sin embargo, en Quito se ha mantenido el 70 por ciento de los habitantes del centro. "Residentes tradicionales son la vida del barrio," añadió Miguel Hincapié.
También es importante la búsqueda de modelos que den continuidad al proyecto. Los mandatos municipales en Colombia están restringidos a cuatro años, sin posibilidad de reelección, a diferencia de lo que sucede en Europa o en EEUU donde las administraciones municipales puede tener una duración mucho mayor. Es obvio que en cuatro años no es posible llevar a cabo una transformación de este tipo, por lo que es necesario buscar modelos que sí permitan dar continuidad al proyecto, y estos modelos se pueden encontrar en otras ciudades de América Latina con sistemas políticos comparables. En el PRVCT se ha buscado un modelo de colaboración de financiación pública y privada, en una estructura de programas, cada uno con su gestor, que se encarguen de canalizar los recursos. Entre las acciones específicas se han identificado como acciones tempranas un plan habitacional, la asignación de subsidios y acuerdos para la recuperación de bienes de interés cultural.
Foto: Pedro Szekely
Andean cooperation in historic centers' rehabilitation
Jorge Bela, Bogotá Community Manager
Bogota's historic center is spectacular. Beautiful and surprisingly well-preserved colonial buildings flank the narrow, cobbled streets. At the end of the steep ascent one can see the Cerros Orientales, the imposing mountains that rise abruptly 600 meters above the city. This sight is unusual in a city that, despite being located in the Andean range, tends to focus its attention on the flat savanna where most of its urban sprawl is located. Unfortunately, the historic district has suffered from gradual but steady decay during the last few decades. The main colonial and republican landmark buildings are generally well maintained, but most of the area suffers from problems such as severe lack of economic development, crime, near total lack of green spaces, degradation of low-income homes, and strong social inequality.
In order to reverse this decay, the City of Bogotá, through its Instituto Distrital de Patrimonio Cultural (IDPC, the local government branch dedicated to the preservation of the City's historic heritage), is in the final stages of the elaboration of the Plan de Revitalización del Centro Tradicional (PRCT, meaning "Plan to Revitalize the Traditional Center"). This plan encompasses not only the colonial district, but the entire area of the consolidated city as of 1920, a total of 471 hectares. For about a year, the Institute has been seeking the advice of experts and has involved the affected communities in the dialogue. Bogotá is not alone in this process: many other Latin American cities have faced similar issues with their historic districts. The IDPC has therefore been able to explore other successful solutions adopted in neighboring countries. Experts from Lima, Guatemala and Bahía dos Santos (Brazil) have already been consulted. But this is not only a one-way street: Bogotá has been invited to participate in the 4th Cultural Landscape conference, organized by the Peruvian cultural ministry, to be held in Lima in December 2013. The IDPC is also seeking technical and financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank.
There are many reasons behind the need for cooperation between cities at the regional level, says Miguel Hincapíe, deputy director of the IPDC. Quito, for instance, undertook a very successful historic center rehabilitation project. And they were able to do so while keeping 70 percent of the original population. This is not a small feat, since generally, when funds start to flow into derelict colonial areas, gentrification rapidly ensues. "Traditional inhabitants constitute the life of a neighborhood," added Miguel Hincapié. It is also important to seek models that allow for continuity despite political change. Mayors in Colombia are limited to one four-year term (re-election is allowed in non-consecutive terms, but it is exceedingly rare). It is clear that four years are not enough to undertake reforms such as those needed by Bogotá's city center. Since in Europe and the US, term restrictions are either less severe or do not exist, it is necessary to find models in cities with similar political constraints, mostly in the same region.
The PRVCT includes a structure of independent and differentiated programs, each with a manager, under a model of public and private financing. This scheme allows for proper distribution of resources, mitigating the effects of political change. Among the urgent actions identified in the plan are the development of a housing program, the creation of a subsidy system for current inhabitants, and the signing of agreements geared to rehabilitating cultural and historical landmarks.
Latin America offers excellent examples of historical centers' rehabilitation. Lima and Quito, both widely considered to be very successful, are in the same Andean region as the Colombian capital. Bogotá is showing foresight in seeking cooperation with its neighboring cities as it prepares its own conservation and rehabilitation plan.
Photo credit: Pedro Szekely