The new distribution of urban poverty: thinking outside the city limits


November 2015 — The geographic distribution of communities, resources, and infrastructure defies the neat official boundaries of the developing world's cities, spawning zones of poverty, scarcity, disconnection, and exclusion that are often far outside the strict limits of the city, yet linked to it in essential ways. At the same time, although they may be off the media radar, suburbs and smaller cities have become new loci of poverty and deprivation. This discussion zooms out from our usual focus on the core issues of the megacity -- big, dramatic, seemingly well understood -- to examine this new distribution of urban poverty, the methodological shifts required to bring it into focus, and the strategic and programmatic innovations necessary to address it. Follow the conversation as it unfolds over the course of November and share your thoughts in the comments below.

Conectar barrios periféricos de la zona nororiental al centro de la ciudad

Medellin, 30 novembre 2015 — Los asentamientos informales se han expandido en las laderas mientras personas desplazadas por el conflicto armado llegaban a Medellín. Espacios de carencias, de pobreza y de violencia, estos barrios autoconstruidos han sufrido de la falta de planificación urbana e inversión estatal. El Proyecto Urbano Integral de la zona nororiental apunta a integrarlos mejor a la ciudad formal, en particular gracias a un "corredor verde." Más allá de los objetivos sociales, se puede relacionar también al recién interés en el potencial turístico de las montañas, ya que un Cinturón Verde Metropolitano está en fase de construcción, creando nuevos espacios públicos para la recreación. Leer más.

New Mumbai needs poverty addressed, too

Mumbai, 27 November 2015 — New Mumbai, the satellite city of Mumbai, is an experimental, planned city on the outskirts of Mumbai. While the city was created to absorb some of the growth issues in the city, other issues, such as poverty and lack of economic opportunities, have also spilled over into the new area. Few NGOs have focused their efforts on Navi Mumbai, but Aarambh has been running programs for vulnerable communities there for at least a decade. See more.

Outside Delhi, informal rentals provide affordable housing

Delhi, 25 November 2015 — Gurgaon, on the outskirts of Delhi, is known for its shining office towers and luxury malls. But all is not so glitzy. Many internal migrants live and work there with few housing options. The informal rental market, tested through a pilot project by micro Home Solutions, could be a potential solution to Gurgaon's woeful lack of affordable housing. See more.

Pembangunan Kawasan Gerbangkertasusila Mempertimbangkan Kondisi Sosial Ekonomi Spasial

Surabaya, 24 November 2015 — Pembangunan kawasan Surabaya dan sekitarnya yang kini dikenal dengan Gerbangkertasusila Plus memerlukan kehati-hatian dan koordinasi semua dengan mempertimbangkan kondisi sosial ekonomi dan spasial dalam pengendalian perkembangan kawasan agar spill-over effect karena kemajuan Kota Surabaya sebagai kota inti dapat memberikan hasil yang positif terhadap kawasan pinggiran. Baca lebih lanjut.

Water is life: Peri-urban water supply in Accra

Accra, 23 November 2015 — While access to water within the Accra Metropolis is over 60 percent, this figure tends to obscure inequality in water supply and access, which mostly affects poor urban communities within the main heart of Accra, as well as newly developed peri-urban areas of the city. This bottleneck in water delivery has given rise to alternative modes of water supply for residents, mostly through private vendors. Private water supply vendors, namely tanker suppliers, water sachet producers, and small-scale water producers, are now the bulk of water delivery system to peri-urban communities within Accra and poor areas. See more.

O Rio de Janeiro aglutinador

Rio de Janeiro, 20 novembro 2015 — A tendência das grandes metrópoles é aglutinar outros centros urbanos, e o Rio de Janeiro não foge à regra. Hoje, seu arranjo populacional já engloba a população de 21 municípios, cidades menores cujo progresso está intrinsecamente ligado ao da capital – para o bem e para o mal. Nesse artigo, conheça o trabalho do Observatório das Metrópoles, dedicado a pesquisar, de maneira sistemática e interdisciplinar, esse desenvolvimento em cadeia, para que suas facetas mais desastrosas possam ser evitadas. Leia mais.

Empowering Chittagong’s indigenous people

Chittagong, 19 November 2015 — The indigenous population of Chittagong Hill Tracts has struggled with their identity and nationality even before the independence of Bangladesh. Increasingly, they have had no choice but to move to the cities, mostly Chittagong city, in search of a better life. This not only makes Chittagong city densely populated, it also poses the issue of wastage of natural resources in the hill tracts. The Integrated Community Development Project by Caritas Bangladesh collaborates with local social organizations and development agencies to ensure their rights, livelihood, education, and health. It also promotes income-generating activities, such as horticulture, so they can find livelihoods locally. See more.

Infrastructure investments to reduce poverty in Lagos suburbs

Lagos, 18 November 2015 — A rising population combined with limited land space has led to a housing deficit in Lagos, forcing many workers to seek residency in the city’s suburbs. Though these locations are not so far from the metropolis, commuting has become a major challenge. The state government through its Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) started the Rail Mass Transit system in 2009 to serve as a faster and more efficient means of transportation both from the outskirts and within the city. The Blue Line Project is one of the seven rail projects proposed by the government. See more.

المدن الجديدة في القاهرة: آفاق اقتصادية واجتماعية جديدة

Cairo, 17 November 2015
يعيش 100٪ من سكان مصر تقريبا في القاهرة والإسكندرية أو على طول ضفاف نهر النيل وقناة السويس. وتعتبر القاهرة والمناطق الرئيسية الأخرى في البلاد بعض من أكثر المناطق اكتظاظا بالسكان في العالم. وتصل الكثافة السكانية في القاهرة إلى 19,376 نسمة لكل كيلومتر مربع..
اقرأ المزيد عن ذلك

Problemas de transporte en Soacha, una ciudad conurbada con Bogotá

Bogotá, 16 novembre 2015 — La conurbación es una consecuencia casi inevitable cuando las ciudades crecen a un ritmo explosivo, como ha sido el caso de Bogotá. La vecina Soacha, ahora completamente conurbada, ha pasado de tener 28,000 habitantes a finales de los 70 a tener 500,000 en la actualidad. El hecho de que un área conurbada quede bajo dos administraciones distintas ha complicado la provisión de servicios básicos, como el agua y el transporte. Leer más.

Building East Africa’s most efficient public transit network

Dar es Salaam, 13 November 2015 — Dar es Salaam, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s rapidly urbanizing centers, is on track to obtain megacity status by 2020. By 2030, it will have the fastest growth in emerging middle class households in Africa (those earning $5,000-$20,000 per year). With this future ahead, infrastructure is going to need to keep up—and the government has a plan. See more.

Nông nghiệp đô thị: Giải pháp đô thị cho các nông dân thành phố

Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Tháng mười một 2015 — Rất ít người nghĩ về hình ảnh người nông dân khi nói đến thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Và số người biết rằng TP. HCM có một phần năm diện tích là đất nông nghiệp, và gần một phần ba dân số thuộc ngành nông nghiệp thậm chí còn ít hơn. Trong tình thế cả chính sách dành cho nông thôn và đô thị đều không phù hợp với thực tế và nhu cầu của họ, người nông dân đô thị dần nhận thấy một hướng đi khả thi cho họ mang tên "nông nghiệp đô thị". Xem thêm.

Dhaka’s new transit hub could cut commuting times in half

Dhaka, 11 November 2015 — Dhaka is densely populated with an extremely populated city center, making transport in the city challenging. To combat this, the government has designed the Dhaka Mass Rapid Transit Development project. In collaboration the Japan International Cooperation Agency, the new system is expected to move over 60,000 commuters per hour. Many struggle for housing at the city center but at the same time, cannot afford it. This project helps connect the outer city population to the city hub without having to fight the expense of living there. See more.

Por Uma Terra de Direitos

Curitiba, 10 novembre 2015 — Apesar da imagem de "cidade modelo," Curitiba não enfrentou a desigualdade socioespacial tanto dentro dos limites da capital, quanto em escala metropolitana – e sérios problemas de segregação persistem nos 29 municípios que, em sistema de conurbação, formam o que se denomina Grande Curitiba. Conheça aqui o trabalho do Terra de Direitos, que batalha para superar as fragmentações e promover, em todo o território, uma nova institucionalidade, que incorpore os princípios inclusivos da universalidade, interdependência e indivisibilidade. Leia mais.

El Corredor Cali – Jamundí: gestionando los problemas de tráfico en una area metropolitana en pleno crecmiento

Cali, 9 novembre 2015 — Jamundí, una ciudad dormitorio ubicada a 23 km de Cali, ha duplicado su población en cinco años. Este crecimiento explosivo ha supuesto un deterioro considerable en los medios de transporte que existen entre las dos ciudades. Para resolver esta situación sería necesario crear una entidad regional que examinara los problemas del área metropolitana en su conjunto. Leer más.

Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu Greater Jakarta

Jakarta, 6 Nopember 2015 — Konsep Greater Jakarta melibatkan kota-kota di pinggiran sebagai kawasan penyangga kota inti. Spill over effect bukan hanya dalam hal ekonomi namun juga permasalahan sampah. Perencanaan bersama dalam pengelolaan sampah antar kawasan sangat vital dan dilakukan melalui pembangunan TPA bersama, TPST dalam kota serta peningkatan kesadaran melalui pemberdayaan masyarakat yang berwawasan ekologis. Baca lebih lanjut.

Slum upgrading on the racially divided edges of Johannesburg

Johannesburg, 15 October 2015 — Johannesburg’s economic and spatial fragmentation – largely along racial lines – has given rise to informal settlements along apartheid-era buffer zones and at the outskirts of the city, perpetuating a landscape shaped by deep inequalities. This month we spoke to Dr. Costanza La Mantia, who recently organised an International Trans-disciplinary Workshop held at the University of the Witwatersrand in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano on patterns of peripheral poverty, using Kya Sands informal settlement on the northern outskirts of Johannesburg as a case study. The workshop aimed at collaboratively developing an incremental and integrative upgrading strategy, using design as an exploratory tool to foster negotiations and collaborations. See more.

Desarrollo local para Milpa Alta

Mexico D.F., 4 Novembre 2015 — En 2010, El CONEVAL informó que Milpa Alta era el municipio de la Ciudad de México con mayores niveles de pobreza, con el 48.6 por ciento de su población. Por lo anterior, el gobierno local y la iniciativa privada implementan estrategias de desarrollo local para atraer turismo a la localidad. Leer más.

Connecting to the periphery

Nairobi, 3 November 2015 — Nairobi is notorious among commuters, travellers, and business owners for consistent and costly jams. Large-scale infrastructure development has helped the efficiency and effectiveness of moving goods and people through and around Nairobi. Because of recently completed road projects, peripheral urban areas of Nairobi have experienced many positives, including a dramatic decrease in commuting time—a step that is in line with Kenya reaching its Vision 2030. See more.

Once a jungle, Bangalore’s recycling hub faces rising costs

Bangalore, 2 November 2015 — As the Bangalore metro grows, informal economies on the outskirts of the city are at risk of eviction. The city’s recycling hubs and waste processing units are located in areas that are now unaffordable. In an ongoing study, Hasiru Dala and the Indian Institute for Human Settlements are working to quantify the economic and social value of the recycling economy to push for subsidized rent and mitigate displacement. See more.

 

Join the discussion on The new distribution of urban poverty: thinking outside the city limits in the comments below.


Join the discussion for this month's topic!

Comments

jorgebela's picture

Hola Fernanda,

sin duda la proximidad a las urbes gigantescas es a la vez una bendición y un castigo para ciudades como Milpa Alta. Su carácter rural le añade un valor incuestionable como centro turístico, cosa que no sucede en las ciudades que se han convertido en dormitorios de las grandes capitales. Me parece interesante el enfoque que le están dando las autoridades, potenciando su gastronomía y sus festivales. ¿Existe oferta de hoteles y establecimientos turísticos, o se trata más bien de una destino al que los capitalinos acuden por un día y luego regresan a sus casas?

María Fernanda Carvallo's picture

Jorge, gracias por tu comentario. Efectivamente, el turismo en zonas rurales está cobrando importancia entre los capitalinos, pues son pulmones de la ciudad que permiten tener contacto con la naturaleza. Es interesante que la estrategia de desarrollo aun no alcanza el establecimiento de hoteles o infraestructura turística, me parece que se está posicionando como un turismo alternativo y tipo ecoturismo. Por ejemplo, en el festival de globos de cantolla, la gente puede pasar la noche en campamentos; para el resto de los eventos la gente normalmente acude por un día. Milpa Alta se encuentra a 1 hora de una de las delegaciones del sur que están más conectadas con la dinámica económica de la ciudad, por lo que es un destino cercano si se cuenta con transporte privado, ya que la movilidad en esta zona aún representa un gran reto.

Andréa Azambuja's picture

Hi Wydia,
Thanks for your article. I found very interesting the Bekasi initiative of installing GSP system in the garbage trucks, it makes a lot of sense. Has this been working fine? Do you know if it's a cheap or expansive solution? About the City of Tangerang, I couldn't understand perfectly how the Garbage Banks work (Google Translator didn't help me much! :)), but I found very interesting this process of people storing their own garbage, because that calls the attention for the huge amount of garbage we produce and might make people think on ways of producing less – is this accompany by any awareness campaign on this matter by the government too?

Shaima Abulhaj's picture

Dear Ashali,
nice article. I wonder if there are some corporate which help through CSR mechanisms to develop Nayandahalli, besides are the Ministries of Bangalore making sure of the labors safety and children there?
It is really interesting how waste recycle can be turned to be a development tool in the global south if it is supported and aided by the national authorities as well as the people's awareness.
Best

Dear Shaima,
CSR would be an interesting way for funds to be allocated towards developing infrastructure (hard and soft) in Nayandahalli. Looking at trends of CSR spending, most large companies invest in rural development (often in communities where they have operations) or in health and education. While CSR investment in the social sector could augment development efforts by the government, the area and its residents also need to be protected against displacement. From my understanding, the DWCCs do provide their staff with safe and hygienic conditions. The study is ongoing and can be followed more closely at: http://wastenarratives.com/

Thanks a lot Ashali for the elaboration. I have been always believing that CSR is a part and parcel of any development process, since corporate in fact get a maximum benefit sometimes from the same local community, hence their engagement should be inevitable to reach a comprehensive and holistic equal-development mechanism.
My best regards!

Peter Adeyeye's picture

Dear Ortis,
Nice article on Peri-urban water supply in Ghana. Interestingly, the scenario described is similar to Lagos albeit people mostly buy from private boreholes as opposed to a central reservoir. Please, is the GCWL and AVRL arrangement a PPP and what are the factors responsible for periodic water shortage?
Also, why are people/government not exploring the bore hole options? Here in Lagos, Local Government Heads and other government authorities sometimes construct borehole in strategic locations to meet the need of the people there.
Thanks

Ortis Yankey's picture

Hey Peter,
I don't really understand what you mean by PPP, but with the borehole issues, yes some people buy water from private boreholes. In general, it is mostly high class household that drill boreholes in their house since its very costly to construct and I don't think the poor can afford it. I think drilling borehole by the government is a good option to explore, but I don't actually know government policy regarding boreholes in the city.What I know is that government construct boreholes for rural areas that are not accessible to central water supply system. we must also understand that borehole is direct underground water and untreated. its sometimes salty and not portable for drinking. Poor household may still have to find an alternative source of drinking water, even though they may still use the water for household chores.
Periodic water shortage is attributed to a number of factors, but according to a report by Water Aid on Ghana, two main issues with the water shortage is due to higher level of urbanisation and higher operational cost. The population within Accra is growing, but the GWCL has not expanded its infrastructure to cater for the growing population due to the higher cost involved in such projects. Let me know what you meant by PPP

Peter Adeyeye's picture

Hello Ortis,
Thanks for the clarification. Apology for the abbreviation, I want to know if it is a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between the Ghanaian government and a private organization.
Thanks

Hola Fernanda,
Gracias por tu artículo. Siempre me interesan las iniciativas que plantean el arte y la cultura como una opción de desarrollo. Me quedé pensando: y qué piensan los mismos habitantes de esta transformación?
Un riesgo sería que esta iniciativa sea la única política pública para la comunidad. Me encantan las iniciativas culturales y artísticas, pero me parece que a veces sirven como fachadas. Pintan murales mientras las personas no tienen acceso a SPD, u organizan talleres de música mientras las tasas de analfabetismo son muy altas… O sea, son políticas muy lindas – ¿quién se opondría al arte? – pero a veces no responden a las necesidades más urgentes de las comunidades.
Me imagino que en el caso que mencionas genera beneficios económicos para la comunidad. No sé si pensaron en asociar estos eventos a políticas más estructurales como el mejoramiento del hábitat.

Hello Ashali, I really enjoyed reading your article. I wrote a paper comparing the policies of Buenos Aires and Cairo on the matter of informal waste management. I am against the idea that in developing countries, informal waste management systems are impediments to modernity and should be eradicated, and not developed. Governments should turn the threat into potential. The greenest cities of the future might be those that maximize the work that the informal sector is already performing, and doing so, they both create and secure jobs for the excluded, and support the development of a better urban environment.
The land value issue is major though. Here in Medellin there was also a big recycling hub, at the time when it was created it was considered in the suburbs, but since the city grew so rapidly, it was quickly in a central area… They’ve completely transformed the area now, it’s a garden.

Hi Lou,

I completely agree! Sustainable cities of the future will hopefully find a way to integrate informal waste management into formal processes to reduce waste in landfills and decrease the carbon footprint of waste! Do you know what happened to the recycling area and the workers in Medellin? Did it shift to an area where land values were lower or was it eradicated completely? I find it extremely interesting that with rising land values, decision makers still chose to create a community space! If only waste management was valued as the public good it really is!

Hilaryzainab's picture

Hey Mukta!

I found this article very interesting and critical for housing rights and equity in developing and rapidly urbanizing cities. Affordable rents are one of the most talked about yet difficult to manage aspects of urban housing in such a context. The incentive to landholders and rental agents to cater to the highest bidder undercuts the need of middle class and low income individuals to access housing. This complicates not only economic mobility but safety and security as well. I enjoyed hearing that there are organizations working to address this issue with micro lending and construction retrofits that increase the availability of housing stock for internal migrants. It will be interesting to see what impact this can have on housing security for economic migrants to the city.

widya anggraini's picture

Hi Andrea,
Apology for the delay to response…the technology was made locally and developed by local people. So, I think it is a good investment in a sense that the government appreciate local products and promote innovation. That’s the information I got so far about it ☺ and about Garbage Banks, it was initiated by community and supported by the government as well as private sector such as Unilever. Rising awareness is also part of public campaign and it was not only conducted by city government but also the lowest level of government such as village and sub-district government. Each of government level already allocate money for campaign on waste management on their development plan document each year.

Add new comment

Filtered HTML

  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.